The prime-boost regimens have been shown to be an effective approach to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses. Homologous prime-boost strategy contains the same formulation used in both the prime and boost regimens. Heterologous prime-boost approaches involve different formulations used in more than one injection.
It has been applied for the development of vaccines against important infectious diseases such as HIV, SIV, HCV, HSV, and HBV indicating promising results even in clinical trials.
Obstacles of tumor vaccines
Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME)
Resistance to tumor vaccines
Presence of antigen (-) tumor cells
Induced TME alteration
Vaccine + OV:
Intratumoral OV to BOOST anti-tumor immunity by
Overcome the immunosuppression TME via release of “danger signals” and multiple immunomodulatory payloads.
Antigen spread: Release more tumor neoantigens through the lysis of tumor cells in a heated TME
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